Difference of negotiation pattern between Chinese and Europeans

I have participated in many Chinese negotiations with Europeans. I draw these 6 key differences between them:

1. Chinese like at first to strengthen friendship, while Westerners put emphasis on facts and get personal feelings outside the negotiating table;

2. Chinese like to balance the interests of all inside parties, and the negotiating team is bigger, while the Western negotiating team has a clear authorization and is smaller. Attention is paid by Westerns to the details rather than the general shared concessions for reaching consensus;

3. Chinese seek harmony by asking both parties to make concessions when there is a conflict, while Westerners pay attention to rationality of analysis and defend their interests;

4. Chinese hope to reach a rough working principle, constantly adapting it during cooperation, while Westerners are eager to set the rules of cooperation in order to prevent conflicts;

5. When implementing contracts, Chinese are more flexible with contract terms, while Westerners are more concentrated on contract’s execution;

6. Chinese are influenced by traditional culture and tend to act according to Sun Tzu’s Art of War and & 36 stratagems, while Westerners believe that certain moral standards must be respected in negotiations..